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Download An Introduction to Phonetics by Parviz Birjandi and Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan PDF

By Parviz Birjandi and Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Phonetics

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To yourselves. They start with retroflex /r/. RETROFLEX TAP TRILL Many phoneticians use the term vibrant to refer to these and similar consonants. Vibrant consonants involve one or more tapping or flapping vibrations of the speech organs under pressure from the airstream. Part of the tongue makes contact with the palate, most commonly at the alveolar ridge, the soft palate, or (in some languages) the uvula. One or more very brief occlusions (or air blockage) occur successively, accompanied by short resonances.

7. VOICING (LEVEL OF VIBRATION) All of us inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. Pulmonary air gets out the lungs and enters the bronchi. The two bronchi meet each other and form the trachea. The trachea is intercepted by the voicebox or larynx on its way out. Inside the voice box, there are two membranes that are hinged together at the back. These membranes are called the vocal cords or the vocal folds. The vocal cords can make a wedge-shaped opening when they are far apart. This opening is called the glottis.

43) In order to produce speech, we modify the flow of air that passes between our lungs and the outside atmosphere. These modifications are normally applied to the flow of carbon dioxide during exhalation to produce a class of sounds technically called egressive sounds. In some African languages, however, people make some speech sounds when they are inhaling air (ingressive 28 CHAPTER THREE sounds). It can, therefore, be concluded that air stream mechanism is at the heart of speech. Normal name Fancy name Adjective lips labia labial teeth ---- dental alveolar ridge ---- alveolar (hard) palate ---- palatal soft palate velum velar uvula ---- uvular upper throat pharynx pharyngeal voicebox larynx laryngeal tongue tip apex apical tongue blade lamina laminal tongue body dorsum (back) dorsal tongue root ---- radical glottis ---- glottal nose nasal cavity nasal mouth oral cavity oral In addition to their normal names, many of the parts of the vocal tract have Latin or Greek fancy names.

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