By Akerlof and Shiller
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The wearing of the Kurdish national costume was forbidden. Many Kurds reacted by revolting. In the 1920s and 1930s, Turkey witnessed several Kurdish uprisings, mostly led by Kurdish shaikhs. 11 In 1930, a revolt led by Ihsan Nuri occurred in the Mount Ararat region in the north of Turkey. The significance of this movement was that it was organized by a political organization, ‘The Kurdish National League’ or Khoybun (Independence), from outside Kurdistan and was led by a local leader. The organization was founded in 1927 and was mainly based in Lebanon and Syria.
I have used the International Journal of Middle East Studies guidance for note citations and transliteration. 1 The Kurds and Kurdistan Introduction In this chapter, I shall try to define which peoples are described as, and describe themselves as, Kurds, and the way in which they relate to the Kurds from other currently recognized nation-states. Kurdish cultural features, economic activities, and political history will, briefly, be discussed. Iranian Kurdistan will be discussed in more detail. It is probable Kurds were Indo-European tribes who came to the mountain regions of the approximate geographic area of present Kurdistan, and settled among the inhabitants who were Sumerian, Babylonian, and Assyrian.
8 A brief background to Kurdish national history The political fortunes of Kurds have, in the past, often been determined by events outside Kurdish control. The situation of Turkish Kurdistan after the First World War, following the demise of the Ottoman Empire, is an example of how vulnerable the Kurdish aspiration for self-determination has been. The future of the Kurds came to be perceived as a serious problem during the first quarter of the twentieth century and, in particular, after the 1914–18 war.