By D. H. Griffiths and R. F. King (Auth.)
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Additional info for Applied Geophysics for Geologists and Engineers. The Elements of Geophysical Prospecting
This equation is useful for estimating 28 Applied Geophysics for Geologists and Engineers Vm Fig. 14 Dependence of P-wave velocity on porosity in dry and saturated rocks of grain matrix velocity Vm. porosity 0 from velocity or vice versa, using Vf == 300 m s ~l or 1500 ms _ 1 for dry and saturated rocks respectively, and a value of Vm, appropriate to the composition, which will rarely lie outside the range 5000-6000 m s -1 . Partially saturated rocks are found to have velocities close to the "dry" value up to 80-90 per cent saturation, when a rapid increase to the "wet" value occurs.
2 Output of a geophone as a function of frequency for different degrees of damping. f0 is the resonance frequency. Simple single-channel systems are sometimes used in small-scale refraction work when the source or recorder is very mobile. g. a weight-drop or hammer-blow) to successively longer ranges. 1) as another example of a useful single-channel system, but in general for either refraction or reflection work it is most efficient to gather seismic data in multi-channel form, and 12, 24, 48 or even 96 channels are now in common use.
9 The ray paths which form a common depth point family from a horizontal reflector. Thefivegeophones are shown in the positions that they occupy when shot 1 is fired: for S3 the spread has moved two spacings to the right so that it is G5 which now occupies the "G3" position. 6) as t2 = t2^x2/yi where t0 = 2h/V and the material above the reflector has a constant velocity V which can in principle be determined by plotting t2 against x2. 1) Note that the NMO decreases with increasing t, that is, the hyperbolic t - x relationship for a reflection event (Fig.