Download Applied optics and optical engineering. Vol. I: Light. Its by R. Kingslake PDF

By R. Kingslake

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This could convey information at only a slow rate, so perhaps single units multiplied into many ommatidia to give the benefits of parallel processing? It is interesting that Daphnia, which has 22 ommatidia, is in constant motion; perhaps scanning with its 22 optical fingers. Compound eyes with hundreds or thousands of optical elements do not need to scan, for they have enough units to work in parallel, as simple eyes such as ours do. 5 Frames of a cine film showing scanning of the photoreceptors of Copilia.

Each eyeball is equipped with six extrinsic muscles, which hold it in position in its orbit and rotate it to follow moving objects, or direct the gaze to chosen features. The eyes work together so that normally they are directed to the same object, converging for near objects and parallel for great distance. There are also muscles within the eyeball. The iris is an annular muscle forming the pupil, through which light passes to the lens, which lies immediately behind. The iris contracts to reduce the optical aperture of the lens in bright light, and also when the eyes converge to view near objects.

5. The receptors move precisely towards and then away from each other—never independently. The rate of the scan varies from about five per second to one scan every two seconds. The secret of this eye is to be found by looking at the living animal. In 1891, Selig Exner reported that the receptor (and attached lens cylinder) make a ‘continuous lively motion’. At that time the concept of sending information down a single channel by scanning was not appreciated—so Copilia could not, in the full sense, be seen at that time.

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