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2008). The objective of this application is to develop and test a wireless sensing technology for detecting logicalb toxins. To achieve this objective, we have developed high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) that have been demonstrated to exhibit some of the highest sensitivities for biological agents. Specific antibodies targeting Enterotoxin type B (Category B, NIAID), Botulinum toxin (Category A NIAID) and ricin (Category B NIAID), or peptide substrates for testing the toxin’s enzymatic activity, have been conjugated to the HEMT surface.

So far, the glucose detection using Au nanoparticle, ZnO nanorod and nanocomb, or carbon nanotube material with GOx immobilization is based on electrochemical measurement (Wang et al. 2006b, Wei et al. 2006, Yang et al. 2004, Hrapovic et al. 2004). AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor Based Sensors for Bio-Application 29 Fig. 9. The duration of the breath is 5 secs in the bottom figure. 30 Biosensors for Health, Environment and Biosecurity Since there is a reference electrode required in the solution, the volume of sample can not be easily minimized.

The measured current change of the exhale breath condensate shows that the pH values are within the range between pH 7 and 8. This range is the typical pH range of human blood. 5. Glucose sensing The glucose was sensed by ZnO nanorod functionalized HEMTs with glucose oxidase enzyme localized on the nanorods, shown in Figure 10. This catalyzes the reaction of glucose and oxygen to form gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Figure 11 shows the real time glucose detection in PBS buffer solution using the drain current change in the HEMT sensor with constant bias of 250 mV.

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