By James E. Stine
This article offers simple implementation techniques for mathematics datapath designs and methodologies used in the electronic procedure. the writer implements quite a few datapath designs for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and department. concept is gifted to demonstrate and clarify why sure designs are selected. each one implementation is mentioned when it comes to layout offerings and the way specific concept is invoked within the undefined. in addition to the idea that emphasizes the layout in query, Verilog modules are provided for figuring out the elemental principles that accompany every one layout. Structural types are applied to assure right synthesis and for incorporation into VLSI schematic-capture courses. From the modules, the reader can simply upload or adjust current code to review present parts of analysis within the quarter of laptop mathematics. The emphasis is at the mathematics set of rules and never the circuit. For any layout, either algorithmic and circuit trade-offs may be adhered to whilst a layout is into consideration. as a result, the assumption is to enforce each one layout on the RTL point in order that it can be almost certainly applied in lots of other ways (i.e. standard-cell or custom-cell). therefore, pros, researchers, scholars, and people regularly drawn to laptop mathematics can know how mathematics datapath components are designed and carried out. additionally incorporated is a CD-ROM which includes the records mentioned within the booklet. The CD-ROM comprises extra documents used in getting ready the designs in Verilog together with scripts to instantly generate Verilog code for parallel carry-save and tree multipliers. each one Verilog layout additionally includes every one module together with testbenches to facilitate trying out and verification.
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Extra info for Digital Computer Arithmetic Datapath Design Using Verilog HDL
Sel A 2-bit Multiplexor. 22. Similar to the CSKA, the carry into bit position 8 is obtained by the following equation: c8 = g7:4 + p7:4 · c4 where g7:4 , and p7:4 come from the ripple carry adders. The delay for this adder is 4 · 4 + 5 = 21 to go through the first ripple carry adder, 2 · 4 = 8 to go through the next two blocks, and 5 to go through the multiplexor. The total delay is 21 + 8 + 5 = 34 . The adder requires 4 · 9 + 12 · 9 · 2 = 252 gates for full adders, 12 · 4 = 48 gates for the multiplexors, and 2 × 3 = 6 gates for the carry logic.
The logic used to produce the carries is typically referred to as a carry lookahead generator (CLG). A 4-bit CLG uses 9 gates and the worst-case delay is 4 . However, some of these gates have higher fan-in requirements. 10. Notice that the Verilog 35 Addition code could probably be implemented more efficiently if it utilizes a similar approach to the RCA. 10. e. g[3:0] and p[3:0], respectively). This is done for easy debugging, however, single bit declarations are possible. 10. Carry Lookahead Generator (CLG) Verilog Code.
The design of a 16-bit CSKA with block size of (1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, 1) requires 154 gates and has a worst case delay of 34 . Speed can also be improved by using faster block CPA adders as previously suggested, such as a CLA. In addition, multiple levels of skip logic have also been introduced which also can limit the delay at the expense of more gates. 17. 6 c0 16-bit Carry Skip Adder (r = 4). Carry Select Adders Another popular adder is the carry-select adder (CSEA). The CSEA divides the operands to be added into r bit blocks similar to the CSKA.