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By Tom Fenchel

This examine explores the normal heritage of oxygen-free environments and their microbial population. existence originated within the pre-oxic global, and anoxic stipulations nonetheless persist in lots of locations in the world reminiscent of lake sediments, the center of ruminants, and the deep waters of a few marine basins. The authors draw on proof from geology, biochemistry, ecology, and evolutionary systematics to explain the forces which form the constitution, functionality, heterogeneity, and evolution of anaerobic groups, and in addition to debate the character of youth in the world.

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Extra info for Ecology and Evolution in Anoxic Worlds (Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution)

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Acnes) is probably responsible for the inflammation of hair follicles which takes the same name. Others give the characteristic flavour to Swiss cheeses. But perhaps the most important economically are those which live in the rumen of cattle and sheep: the propionibacteria take lactate, a major fermentation product, and ferment it further to propionate and acetate. They get one ATP from this, which probably accounts for the exploitation by these bacteria of the lactate-rich niche in the rumen ( Fig.

Shallow-water sediments differ in that they typically import more organic material, not only in the form of detrital material from the plankton, but also as debris derived from seagrasses and macroalgae and not least from primary production in the surface layers due to cyanobacteria, diatoms and other eukaryotic algae. In sediments, photosynthesis extends down to a little more than 3 mm depth (Fenchel and Straarup 1 97 1 ; Revsbech et al. 1 980). Oxygenic photosynthesis provides substrates for aerobic and anaerobic 28 • Anaerobic environments heterotrophs.

G. by Clostridium butyricum) some reducing power is dumped on butyrate, but some molecular hydrogen is also produced: - = - - Glucose --7 Butyrate + 2C02 + 2H2 and the process yields 3 ATPlglucose (Fig. 7). / ATP � CO, ==t=I I o�2 1 ACETATE / /' / / / } 1 ,-, I � I / ' �___ I 0 � 1 � I ATP BUTYRATE Fig. 8 An outline of the branched fermentation pathway in Clostridium pasteur­ ianum, which produces variable quantities of acetate, butyrate, H2 and a net yield of 3 to 4 ATP/hexose (based on information in Thauer et al.

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