Download Elements of Classical Physics by Martin C. Martin and Charles A. Hewett (Auth.) PDF

By Martin C. Martin and Charles A. Hewett (Auth.)

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One might, therefore, speculate that the index of refraction indicates the extent to which a given material interferes with or impedes the passage of light. More dense materials would be expected to give more effective interference than those of lesser density since there are more individual atoms or molecules to act. We shall return to this point in a later chapter. Table 6-1 Typical Indices of Refraction. 42 A more synunetric form of Snell's law is obtained if we use absolute indices of refraction as exhibited in Eq.

In the change in state from liquid to vapor, the process is different than from solid to liquid. In a liquid, not all the molecules have the same energy. There are always a few which have energies and velocities greater than the average, just as there are a few with energies and velocities that are lower. When a liquid is exposed to the open ah-, some of these molecules with high energy escape from the liquid surface and may be carried away by air currents. Any liquid exposed to the air evaporates.

Part of the radiation entering the cavity will be absorbed by its walls and part reflected. Only a very small part of the reflected radiations escape through the hole, so that after many internal reflections nearly all the radiation is absorbed and the body approximates a black body. Figure 4-5 Demonstration that a black surface is a better radiator than a polished surface. If radiation falls on an opaque body, some is absorbed and some is reflected. If a denotes the fraction that is absorbed and ρ the fraction that is reflected, then α + p = 1, (4-4) where a is called the absorption factor and ρ the reflection factor.

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