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By Tarik Al-Shemmeri

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Laws of Thermodynamics Engineering Thermodynamics Since the majority of adiabatic machines are flow processes, isentropic efficiency is usually expressed in terms of the useful work W. η ic = W12' W12 (47) And for the expansion process η it = W12 W12' (48) For the compression process, If changes in kinetic and potential energy are negligible, the SFEE may be used to rewrite these expressions in terms of specific enthalpy change and for a perfect gas, enthalpy change may be expressed by temperature change.

During a non flow process the change in internal energy is calculated assuming the closed’s system volume remains constant, the following equation is used 40 3. 3 Specific Heat Heat may be defined as energy in transit from a high temperature object to a lower temperature object. An object does not possess "heat"; the appropriate term for the microscopic energy in an object is internal energy. The internal energy may be increased by transferring energy to the object from a higher temperature (hotter) object - this is properly called heating.

When temperature reaches the melting point of the substance (Tm), there is an abrupt increase in entropy as the substance changes from a solid to a more disordered liquid. Again the entropy increases gradually as the motion of the particles increases until the temperature reaches the boiling point of the substance (Tb). At this point, there is another drastic increase in entropy as the substance changes from a confined liquid particles to radom motion gas particles. 54 3. ) Experimentally it appears that the entropy at absolute zero is the same for all substances.

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