By Yvonne Maria Werner, Jonas Harvard
Stories approximately treacherous Jesuits and scheming popes are a huge and pervasive a part of eu tradition. They belong to a suite of principles, photographs, and practices that, while grouped less than the label anti-Catholicism, characterize a phenomenon that may be traced again to the Reformation. Anti-Catholic events and sentiments crossed limitations among ecu nations, contributing to the early glossy consolidation of nationwide identities. within the 19th century, secularist activities followed and remodeled confessional feedback in a brand new internationalist size that used to be articulated around the complete Western international. a number of liberal, conservative, secular, Protestant, and different forces gave form to this counter-image, taking up the functionality of a development from which one's personal beliefs and ideology might be chiselled out. The contributions to this quantity exhibit how varied nationwide contexts affected the proliferation of anti-Catholic messages over the process 4 centuries of ecu heritage, and show that anti-Catholicism constituted a robust eu cross-cultural phenomenon.
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Additional resources for European Anti-Catholicism in a Comparative and Transnational Perspective
Letters. In New York Evangelist. Cheever, George B. 1846a. Wanderings of a Pilgrim in the Shadow of Mont Blanc. New York: Wiley & Putnam. Cheever, George B. 1846b. The Pilgrim in the Shadow of the Jungfrau Alp. New York: Wiley & Putnam. 40 John Wolffe Clark, Christopher and Wolfram Kaiser, eds. 2003. Culture Wars: Secular-Catholic Conflict in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Colley, Linda. 1992. Britons: Forging the Nation 1707–1837. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
When the Pope rejected the national cause in 1848, the national movement broke with the Catholic Church. In the Kingdom of Sardinia, moderate liberal governments passed anti-clerical laws, which provoked the rancorous opposition of the Catholic Church and its followers. As a result of these disputes, anti-clericalism became a mass phenomenon in Piemont, which allied the government and opposition. The press was proactive as an anti-clerical pressure group. The expansion of church laws throughout Italy after 1860 escalated the conflict on a national level.
Lehmann. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Millward, P. 1985. The Stockport Riots of 1852. In The Irish in the Victorian City, eds. Roger Swift and Sheridan Gilley, 207–24. London: Croom Helm. Noll, Mark A. and Carolyn Nystrom. 2005. Is the Reformation Over? An Evangelical Assessment of Contemporary Roman Catholicism. Grand Rapids: Baker. N ORTH ATLANTIC ANTI -CATHOLICISM IN THE 19TH CENTURY 41 Scott, Thomas M. 2005. The Global Resurgence of Religion and the Transformation of International Relations.