Download Fire and Brimstone: The North Butte Mining Disaster of 1917 by Michael Punke PDF

By Michael Punke

The precise tale of the worst hard-rock mining catastrophe in American history
The worst hard-rock mining catastrophe in American heritage begun a part hour ahead of dead night on June eight, 1917, whilst hearth broke out within the North Butte Mining Company's Granite Mountain shaft. Sparked greater than thousand toes lower than flooring, the hearth spewed flames, smoke, and toxic gasoline via a labyrinth of underground tunnels. inside of an hour, greater than 400 males will be locked in a conflict to outlive. inside 3 days, 100 and sixty-four of them will be dead.
Fire and Brimstone recounts the striking tales of either the boys lower than floor and their households above, targeting teams of miners who made the brilliant choice to entomb themselves to flee the gasoline. whereas the catastrophe is compelling in its personal correct, fireplace and Brimstone additionally tells a miles broader story—striking in its modern relevance.
Butte, Montana, at the eve of the North Butte catastrophe, used to be a unstable jumble of antiwar protest, an abusive company grasp, seething exertions unrest, divisive ethnic rigidity, and radicalism either left and correct. It used to be a powder keg missing just a spark, and the mine hearth might ignite moves, homicide, ethnic and political witch hunts, profession through federal troops, and eventually a conflict over presidential strength.

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Thermal treatment (decapitation) is sometimes used for concentration of spodumene ores. The ore is heated to 95–1000 °C, where the spodumene is converted from α to β form in which case spodumene is transferred to powder form and is separated from other minerals either by screening or by air classification. 5% FeO. 1 Flotation properties of spodumene Flotation properties and selection of flotation methods very much depends on the type of gangue minerals present in the ore. , iron). Over the years extensive research work has been conducted on various ore types.

Pure mineral is attached but not decomposed by acid. The interlayer potassium is capable of ion exchange which as with other mica frequently occurs with iron salts. This can lead to anionic activation Handbook of Flotation Reagents: Chemistry, Theory and Practice. V. All rights reserved. 41 42 CHAPTER 28 Beneficiation of Lithium Ores of the mica and could, under acid flotation conditions lead to activation of other minerals in a flotation pulp. Petalite: This is insoluble in acid and is a relatively stable mineral.

3 Flow sheet for beneficiation of petalite from complex ores using flotation. 1 Bernic Lake—Manitoba, Canada The Bernic Lake ore is relatively complex and variable within the ore body. The main minerals include quartz, feldspars, microcline, albite, and lepidolite. Major lithium minerals are spodumene with some amblygonite. The amblygonite represents a problem in recovery of spodumene as this mineral contains phosphorus, which is an impurity in production of high-grade spodumene. Initial development work started in 1978, which included pilot plant testing.

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