By Christian La Borderie, Thierry Reess, Wen Chen, Olivier Maurel, Franck Rey-Berbeder, Antoine de Ferron, Gilles Pijaudier-Cabot
This e-book offers a brand new fracturing approach that are meant to be regarded as a possible replacement, or a better half strategy, to hydraulic fracturing of tight gasoline reservoirs and occasional permeability rock plenty. rather than hydraulic fracturing which generates a number of numbers of enormous cracks, electro-hydraulic fracturing induces diffuse micro-cracking and fragmentation of rocks. Laboratory assessments reveal that raises of permeability by way of orders of significance might be reached, with out significant cracking in validated specimens. This publication discusses the foundations of this new strategy, reviews experiments which were built is order to turn out the idea that and at last describes the numerical version from which the possibilities of this method in consultant reservoir stipulations could be assessed.
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Extra info for Electrohydraulic Fracturing of Rocks
As expected, the permeability measured under confinement was lower than the one measured without confinement. The ratio between permeability measured under medium confinement and without confinement is approximately equal to one order of magnitude. We will see that the variation of permeability due to electrohydraulic fracturing is much larger than that. 5. X-ray tomography Each specimen was scanned in an X-ray tomography facility prior to and after testing. The specimens were marked so that the three-dimensional (3D) images could be superimposed and then relative permanent displacements between the two images could be recovered.
The directionality induced by damage is an asset of this model, which will be quite useful when dealing with extension to damage–permeability coupled effects. The constitutive relations used here are an extension of Desmorat’s model, fulfilling the conservation of fracture energy upon quasi-static failure. This later aspect is required in order to cope with the difficulties coming from the strain softening response of the material [BAZ 02]. Without this feature, the model would yield zero energy dissipation upon failure that remains localized into a zone of infinitely small Computational Modeling of the Process: Principles 31 width.
5. s] is the dynamic viscosity of the inert gas used (nitrogen) and r1 [m], r2 [m], and h [m] are the inner radius, outer radius and the height of the cylindrical specimen, respectively. This permeability is relative to the overall gas flow through the material, consisting of the viscous flow and the slip flow. Viscous flow corresponds to the classical laminar configuration. The slip flow appears when the average diameter of the pores is the size of the mean free path of the gas molecules (average distance between collisions).