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Extra resources for Evaluating Alcohol and Drug Abuse Treatment Effectiveness. Recent Advances

Sample text

On occasion, some of the classifications of variables were arbitrary. For exam­ ple, affiliation with AA can be considered either as an index of social function­ ing or as further treatment; use of drugs can be categorized as either an index of physical functioning or emotional adjustment; living alone can be viewed either as an indicator of social functioning or residential status. Variables which have been somewhat artibrarily assigned to one category as opposed to another have been noted in Table 1.

This report was difficult to interpret, however, because the definitions of outcome criteria were ambiguous and changed throughout the article. In addition, data on the correlations among measures of outcome were only presented for selected 48 variables. An evaluation of the aversion technique of succinylcholine-induced apnea was the subject of a report by Clancy, Vanderhoof and Campbell (1967). The subjects were 42 hospitalized inpatient alcoholics who were (apparently) randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions.

23 Dry appointments Dry at last visit Alcohol intake Proportion of dry visits to clinic Baekeland § Kissin, 1973 Baekeland, Lundwall $ Shanahan, 1973 Work status Time unemployed Time spent away from family Time spent drinking Azrin, 1976 Sleep disturbance Off job accidents Drinking status Asma, Eggert ξ Hilker, 1971 Job efficiency Promotions Sickness disability On-the-job accidents Vocational status Quarreling with others Tremors Blackouts Drinking alone Missed meals Marital stability Difficulty sleeping Missed work days Drinking on job Job stability Daily consumption Drinking on awaken­ ing Being drunk Continuous drinking Time between drinking sessions Remission Armor, Poiich $ Stambul, 1976 Physical Functioning Marital situation Social adjustment Social Functioning Employment Financial situation Vocational Functioning Urge to drink Drank since contact Length of absti­ nence Drinking Behavior Aharan, Ogilvie ξ Partington, 1967 Study Outcome Measures Listing of the 103 Studies Reviewed, Categories of Variables for Which Outcome Data Were Reported for Each Study, and Specific Measures Obtained for Each Outcome Measure Category TABLE 1 Quality of investment in interpersonal relationships Participation in organizations Quality of work adjustment Regular employment Abstinence Abstinence Abstinence Change in drinking behavior Drinking pattern Bolman, 1965 Bowen Ç Androes, 1968 Burtle, Whitlock § Franks, 1974 Burton $ Kaplan, 1968 Employment Job changes Better work Length of abstinence Length of sobriety Relapses Clancy, Vornbrock ξ Vanderhoof, 1965 Cook, Morgan § Pollack, 1968 Employed Number of jobs Employment Length of abstinence Clancy, Vanderhoof £ Campbell, 1967 Chesnow, Sabatini, Musei, Kaplitz S Marquardt, 1962 Ecological $ marital adjustment Occupational stabil­ ity Sobriety Belasco, 1971 DTs or convulsions Overeating Loss of appetite Dizziness Loss of consciousness Shakes Hallucinations Vomiting Delirium Tremens (DTs) Convulsions Liver dysfunction Relations with spouse, Mortality family, ξ colleagues Illness Relations with family, Illness friends Family pathology Social deterioration Assaults Job loss Absenteeism Alcohol consumption Maximal one day ingestion Baer, 1973 Degree of absti­ nence Changes in drinking patterns Binges Drinking pattern Davidson, 1976 Ditman, Hayman £ Whittlesey, 1962 Dubourg, 1969 Abstinence Uncontrolled drinking Faillace, Flamer, Imber, $ Ward, 1972 Foster, Horn ξ Wanberg, 1972 Change in drinking pattern Degree of abstinence Change in drinking patterns Gallant, 1971 Gallant, Bishop, Camp $ Tisdale, 1968 Gallant, Bishop, Mouledoux, Faulkner, Brisolara ξ Swanson, 1973 Franke1 $ Murphy, 1974 Drinking pattern Edwards $ Guthrie, 1967 Dunne, 1973 Abstinence Amount consumed Drinking Behavior Corder, Corder $ Laidlaw, 1972 Study Socioeconomic status (SES) Economic status Job performance Occupational adjust­ ment Disciplinary charges Sick absences Employment Work adjustment Occupational class Employment Vocational Functioning Social status Friendship/peer re­ lationships Community activity Marr iage/fami1y Interpersonal adjustment Family $ social adjustment Social contact Recreational activities Marital status Social Functioning Physical fitness Mortality Illness Physical Functioning Family adjustment Social life Employment Adjustment to job Work status Employment record Job performance Occupational adjust­ ment Drinking pattern Drinking pattern Drinking behavior Drinking pattern Drinking behavior Abstinence Drinking behavior Abstinence Drinking behavior Time spent drinking Drinking on visits to clinic Gerard § Saenger, 1966 Gerard, Saenger £ Wile 1962 Gerrein, Rosenberg £ Manohar, 1973 Gillis $ Keet, 1969 Goldfried, 1969 Grof, Soskin, Richards S Kurland, 1973 Hartman, 1971 Hilker, Asma ξ Eggert, 1972 Holder $ HalIan, 1972 Hunt £ Azrin, 1973 Jacobson $ Silfverskiold, 1973 Time spent away from home Time spent unemployed Mortality Health Family disruptions Economic stability Sick leave days Off-job accidents Medications State of health Mortality Health status Mortality Job efficiency Promotions Sickness disability On-the-job accidents Interpersonal adjust­ ment Home ξ social life Quality of interper­ sonal relationships Social stability Socialization pat­ terns Interpersonal rela­ tionships Work status Work adjustment Days drinking Days intoxicated Gellens, Gottheil $ Alterman, 1976 Marriage and family relationships Drinking behavior Gallant, Faulkner, Stoy, Bishop $ Langdon, 1968 Drinking habits Jongsma, 1970 Drinking pattern Khoury $ Pearson, 1961 Drinking habits Desire for alcohol Amount consumed Abstinence Abstinence Drinking behavior Drinking pattern Lai, 1969 Lehmann £ Ban, 1967 Linton & Hain, 1967 Lowe ξ Thomas, 1976 Ludwig, Levine, Stark, S Lazar, 1969 Xolb, Gunderson Ç Bucky, 1976 Drinking behavior Katz, 1966 Kaplan, Blume, Rosenberg, Pitrelli £ Turner, 1972 Abstinence Drinking practices Consequences of drinking Attitudes toward drinking Drinking Behavior Johnson, 1969 Study Employment Vocational adjust­ ment Remained on active duty Received favorable discharge Economic status £ productivity Employment Living and working situation Employment Vocational Functioning Home interpersonal relationships Social interpersonal relationships Personal £ social functioning Interpersonal rela­ tionships Relational ability Social adjustment Family ξ interper­ sonal relationships Marital situation Family relations Social contacts Social relationships Marital status Social Functioning Fatigueability Autonomie reaction Somatization Physical £ emotional state Somatic £ psychic condition Physical Functioning Marital relations Job performance Relations with fellow workers Employment Regularity of work Work record Days worked Unemployment Drinking behavior Alcohol intake Alcohol abuse Observation of intoxication Drinking pattern Drinking behavior Alcohol consumption Abstinence Days drank Mayer £ Myerson, 1970 Merriman, 1962 Miller, Hersen, Eisler § Elkin, 1974 Mindlin, 1960 Mosher, Davis, Mulligan S Iber, 1975 NIAAA, 1977 Newton $ Stein, 1974 Newton $ Stein, 1973 Marriage Social adjustment Employment Abstinence Malcolm £ Madden, 1973 Interpersonal relationships Improvement at home Return to work for 60 days Effective performance Improvement at work Control of drinking problem Madill, Campbell, Laverty, Sanderson £ Vandewater, 1966 MacDonough, 1976 Personal social responsibilities Physical symptoms Sleep Sleeping Headaches Mortality Health Church attendance Adjustment to family Interpersonal relations Social integration $ adjustment Vocational health Vocational health Change in SES Employment Work adjustment Employment/Income/ Assets Drinking behavior Drinking pattern Drinking behavior Drinking status Abstinence Drinking status Abstinence Drinking behavior Pattison, Coe $ Rhodes, 1969 Pattison, Headley, Gleser § Gottschalk, 1968 Pittman ξ Tate, 1972 Pokorny, Miller $ Cleveland, 1968 Pokorny, Miller, Kanas, $ Vallès, 1973 Prothro, 1961 Rathod, Gregory, Blows, $ Thomas, 1966 Rhodes $ Hudson, 1969 General health Mortality Withdrawal symptoms Social stability Social adjustment Personal $ social adjustment Work adjustment Work adjustment Employment status Income Physical health Interpersonal health Interpersonal health Number jobs Days employed Income from working Alcohol consumption Period of abstinence Heavy drinking episodes Paredes, Gregory $ Jones, 1974 Continued service Drinking pattern Papas, 1971 Physical health Physical Functioning Drinking pattern Drinking goal Use of spare time Social Functioning Orford, 1973 Employment Vocational Functioning Abstinence Drinking behavior O'Briant, Lennard, Allen, ξ Ransom, 1973 Study Work status Employment Drinking status Drinking status Abstinence Time spent drinking Drinking episodes Drinking behavior Period of abstinence Observed drinking Drinking adjustment Robinson, Paulus § Clarke, 1965 Rohan, 1970 Rohan, 1972 Rossi, Stach $ Bradley, 1963 Rothstein- § Clancy, Marital status Family responsibility Social functioning Domestic relations DTs DTs Health Drinking status Drinking status Schaefer, Sobell S Mills, 1971 Schaefer, Sobell £ Sobell, 1972 Mortality Getting along with family/children/wife Getting along socially Role of breadwinner Getting along at work Sobriety Sarett, Cheek $ Osmond, 1966 Evaluation by collâteral Relations with fellows Symptoms Ability to function socially/sexually Ability to function at work Sager, Riess § Gundlach, 1964 Employment status Social adjustment 1970 Work adjustment Full-time employment Sibling relations Mortality Budgeting Relations with caseHarmony between ability worker £ performance Marital status Income Expression of affection Attitudes toward care of home Respect for wife Sexual adjustment Use of leisure time Employment Employment Drinking status Ritson, 1968 Drinking disposition Drinking disposition Drinking disposition Drinking behavior Drinking adjustment Drinking pattern Sobell £ Sobell, 1973a Sobell ξ Sobell, 1973b Sobell $ Sobell, 1976 Stein, Newton $ Bowman, 1975 Tomsovic, 1970 Tomsovic, 1974 Improved employment status Employment Employment record Financial status Vocational status Occupational status Occuaptional status Vocational status Employment status Supervisor rating Work record Drinking behavior Drinking a problem Simopoulos, Pinto, Babikow, Kurland, $ Savage, 1970 Smart, 1974 Abstinence Shaffer, Hanlon, Wolf, Foxwell § Kurland, 1962 Employment status Abstinence Shaffer, Freinek, Wolf, Foxwell $ Kurland, 1964 Vocational Functioning Skoloda, Alterman, Cornel- Drinking behavior ison £ Gottheil, 1975 Abstinence Drinking Behavior Shaffer, Freinek, Wolf, Foxwell § Kurland, 1963 Study Marital accord Marital status Marital status Adjustment to inter­ personal relation­ ships/stressful situations.

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