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By George F. Vande Woude (ed.), George Klein (ed.)

Offers important info at the interesting and fast-moving box of melanoma research. Outstanding and unique reports are provided on various issues.

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Further experiment indicated that T1762A and G1764A double mutations could synergize the reduction of promoter activity. 037). , 2009a). , 2000) (Table IV). F. , 1991). , 2003). In our recent case–control study, pre-S deletion mutant of HBV was determined in 202 asymptomatic carriers and 64 HCC patients with chronic HBV genotype B or C infection. , 2006c). Our further mapping study of pre-S region revealed all the deletion regions encompassed T- and B-cell epitopes, and most of them lost one or more functional sites, including polymerized human serum albumin-binding site and nucleocapsid-binding site.

92). In summary, genetic variations in cytokine and DNA repair genes contribute to the susceptibility to HBV-related HCC, and smoking seems to increase such genetic susceptibility. V. PRIMARY PREVENTION OF HBV-RELATED HCC As chronic HBV infections is a common cause of HCC, the best and costeffective strategy to prevent HBV infection is to implement universal hepatitis B vaccination (Asia-Pacific Working Party on Prevention of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, 2010). Ample evidence documents that vaccination of newborns against HBV infection in Taiwan has effectively reduced persistent HBV infections from 15% in the pre-vaccination era to < 1% in the post-vaccination era (Kao and Chen, 2008).

2007a). This observation may correlate with different outcomes of immunomodulatory treatment and the progression of liver disease in HBV carriers infected with different genotypes. In summary, virologic differences and subsequent interactions with host immune responses may influence clinical outcomes and epidemiologic characteristics of patients with different HBV genotype infections. C. Subgenotype Although the clinical significance of HBV genotype has become recognized, limited studies have examined the clinical relevance of HBV subgenotypes.

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