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6 Region of volume ∆x∆y∆z fixed in space through which fluid is flowing. 7) where t is time. 8) where ux is velocity component along x-coordinate. Similar derivations can be made for rate of mass flow along y and z directions. Combining all these, Eq. 9) For an incompressible flow, ρ is constant, so Eq. u is divergence of velocity vector u . 10) are known as the equation of continuity. , Eq. 1). 1. As it moves, its change of properties is a consequence of both change of position and of time. When it is considered this way, and the fluid element is followed in time and space, then the rate of change of a property is expressed by its substantial derivative.

8 SLAG BASICITY AND CAPACITIES Basicity of a slag increases with increased percentages of basic oxides in it. It is an important parameter governing refining. Steelmakers had always paid attention to it. In the early days, the numerical value of basicity was taken as the CaO/SiO2 ratio, modified ratio, or excess base. , Ca2+, O2–), the concentration of free O2– increases with increasing basicity. Therefore, from a thermodynamic viewpoint, the activity of oxygen ion ( a O2 – ) may be taken as an appropriate measure of the basicity of slag.

19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. , 33, 1993, p. 2. , in Proc. , USA, 1990, p. 132. , Trans AIME, 242, 1968, p. 940. A. , J. of Non-Crystalline Solids, 21, 1976, p. 373. D. , J. Chem. , Faraday Trans. 1, 74, 1978, p. 1410. Bergman, A. , in Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Molten Slags and Fluxes, Inst. of Metals, London, 1989, p. 150. Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Molten Slags and Fluxes, Inst. of Metals, London, 1989. J. , Ironmaking and Steelmaking, 19,1992, p. 201. , Yokoyama, T. , 33, 1993, p. 204. , Ironmaking and Steelmaking, 17, 1990, p.

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